A solar car is a vehicle, which is powered by sun’s energy. A solar car is a light weight, low power vehicle designed and built with a single purpose in mind – racing. They have limited seating (usually one, sometimes two people), they have very little cargo capacity, and they can only be driven during the day. It does, however, offer an excellent opportunity to develop future technologies that can be applied to practical applications.
The main component of a solar car is its solar array, consisting of photovoltaic cells, which collect the energy from the sun and converts it into usable electrical energy. The energy is passed either to the battery for storage, or to the motor to run the car, though a device called power tracker, which convert it into the required voltage. The decision on whether to transfer the power to the motor or battery is made by a small onboard computer called the motor controller. It is responsible for sending the electricity smoothly to the motor when the accelerator is depressed, controlling the torque that goes to the motor such that the car maintains the desired speed. Some cars also use a process called regenerative braking, which allows some of the kinetic energy stored in the vehicle’s translating mass to be stored in the battery when the car is slowing down.